The most abundant biowaste is lignocellulosic biomass, primarily composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractives in varying proportions worldwide. Banana peel, water hyacinth, and microalgae are efficient lignocellulosic feedstock found abundantly at low cost. Natural biopolymers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are abundant in plant cell walls and are also secreted in their purest forms by numerous bacteria. These biomaterials are regarded as effective substitutes for synthetic materials because of their distinct features. Lignocellulosic biopolymers have generated a lot of interest because of their commercial applications, easy operation in production, and low price. The present research study described a modified extraction method of bioactive biopolymer using a chemical alkaline treatment, bleaching, and acid hydrolysis. The cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin from the lignocellulosic biomass banana peel and water hyacinth were extracted. The extracted biopolymer yield was calculated and analyzed by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometer. These extracted biopolymers have wide use in the pharmaceutical and paper industries and in the production of cosmetics, food additives, and food preservation.
Keywords: Biomass, Bioethanol, Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Lignin