Course Details

Subject {L-T-P / C} : CH2111 : Fluid Dynamics {3-1-0 / 4}
Subject Nature : Theory
Coordinator : Prof. Hara Mohan Jena

Syllabus

Basic concepts, properties and classification, fluid statics, buoyancy, pressure measurement. Fluid flow phenomena, nature and classification of flow, Kinematics of fluid flow, velocity field stream function, irrational flow, vortex flow, dynamic properties of fluid, turbulence, boundary layers. Flow measurement, Orifice meter, Venturi meter, Pitot tube, and Rota meters, brief introduction to non-conventional methods: Laser Doppler velocimetry, Particle image velocimetry, Ultrasonic flow meters, Electromagnetic flow meters. Macroscopic Balances, derivation of integral balances for mass, energy and momentum, differential balances of fluid flow: derivation of continuity and momentum (Navier-Stokes) equations, applications to plane Couette, plane Poiseuille and pipe flows. High-Reynolds number flows, inviscid flows and potential flows, pipe flows and fittings, laminar and turbulent flows friction factor charts, losses in fittings, flow in manifolds. Compressible fluid flow, flow through nozzles and orifices. Dimensional analysis and similitude, Buckingham Pi theorem and applications, model analysis. Fluid transportation, valves, pumps and compressors, performance analysis of fluid machines. Flow past immersed bodies, flow past a sphere and other submerged objects, fluid friction in porous media, flow through packed beds and fluidized beds, movement of solid particles in a fluid flow, lift forces. Boundary Layer Theory, Introduction to turbulent flow, transition to turbulence, fluctuations and time-averaging, basic equations of turbulent flow, turbulent boundary layer equation, flat plate turbulent boundary layer, turbulent pipe flow.

Course Objectives

  1. To provide the students the fundamentals of fluid dynamics and make them conversant in the analytical formulation of fluid dynamics problems using Newton’s Laws of motion and thermodynamics
  2. Analyze and solve laminar and turbulent flows in channels, conduits, through porous media, moving bodies, multiphase flows
  3. To make them conversant in fluid flow measurement and fluid transportation, performance analysis of related devices/machines
  4. Use of dimensional analysis and similarity considerations in the design and interpretation of scale model, conversant in compressible fluid flow calculations

Course Outcomes

On successful completion of the course, the student will be able to:
1. estimate fluid properties and relationship between them, able to measure pressure using manometer s and calculate forces on submerged bodies
2. understand and use conservation of mass, momentum and energy as applied to fluid motions and calculate flow rates using various flow measuring devices
3. calculate accelerations and associated pressure variations in moving fluids using Euler’s and Bernoulli’s equations, analyze momentum fluxes and calculate forces in moving fluids
4. calculate local and overall skin friction drag in laminar and turbulent flow using approximate empirical formula, solve hydraulic pipe flow problems using Moody’s diagram for skin friction to calculate flow rate/ pressure loss / pipe diameter, distinguish major and minor losses
5. use dimensional analysis and similarity considerations in the design and interpretation of scale model experiments.
6. Illustrate subsonic, sonic, supersonic, hypersonic flows with respect to Mach number, calculate flow rate of compressible fluid through nozzles and orifices
7. calculate lift and drag forces for simple shapes like spheres , cylinders etc., estimate terminal velocity and settling velocity, pressure drop though fluidized bed, calculation of minimum fluidization velocity and identify type of fluidization
8. calculate pumping power, draw performance characteristics of pumps and basic design of pumps

Essential Reading

  1. W.L. McCabe, J.C. Smith, P. Harriot, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, McGraw-Hill Publication , 2014
  2. Noel de Nevers, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Tata McGraw-Hill , Third Edition, 2011

Supplementary Reading

  1. Ron Darby, Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics, CRC Press , 2nd Ed., 2001
  2. F. A. Holland and R. Bragg, Fluid Flow for Chemical Engineers, Buuterworth - Heinemann , Second edition, 1995